Tajikistan: Wheat Is the 1st Most Imported Product


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Tajikistan’s Grain production was estimated at 1.4 million tons in 2021. Production of Wheat, the main cereal crop, is estimated at 852,000 tons, while the outputs of Barley, corn, and rice (in milled terms) are estimated at 196,000 tons, 240,200 tons, and 111,900 tons, respectively. Wheat and cotton are the two main cash crops in Tajikistan, cultivated on nearly 70% of the cropped area (36% under Wheat, 30% under cotton, and 9% under other crops).

Tajikistan’s population is predominantly rural and largely dependent on agriculture. Agriculture accounts for a quarter of Tajikistan’s gross domestic product and export revenues, 39% of tax revenues, and half of total employment. Given the widespread migration of male Tajik workers overseas, women constitute the majority of employees (accounting for 53% of the economically active population in agriculture).

Agricultural productivity in Tajikistan is low compared to other countries in the region. For example, yields of major crops (2.2 tons/ha for Wheat and 1.7 tons/ha for cotton) are significantly lower than Uzbekistan’s yields (4.5 tons/ha for Wheat and 2.3 tons/ha for cotton), which are down by international standards. Yields for irrigated Wheat should be in the range of 5–6 tons/ha. In 2016-2020, average yield of corn was 5.4 tons/ha.

In MY 2021/2022, Tajikistan planted Barley on 74,000 hectares and harvested 130,000 tons with a yield of 1.8 tons/ha. In terms of Wheat, the country planted 290,000 hectares and harvested 770,000 tons with a yield of 2.7 tons/ha, according to the USDA. Scale crops, such as Wheat and cotton, are usually grown on larger peasant farms (average size of more than 40 hectares) and the few remaining shirkats (former collective farms). All agricultural land in Uzbekistan is owned by the state.

Regarding farm categories, households, dehkan farms, and agricultural enterprises account for 50.8%, 44.8%, and 4.4%, respectively. Feed use (animals and poultry) is estimated at 640,400 tons of Grains in 2021. In particular, it is expected that 18 percent of the Wheat production (as bran when milled into flour), plus most available Barley and corn, will be used as livestock feed.

A few years ago, COFCO E&T Zhengzhou successfully accepted the reconstruction of the Wheat Milling Line in Dushanbe of Tajikistan; this facility is one of the critical facilities of the Government of Tajikistan. Based on the investigation of the construction site, repeated exchanges with the customer’s technical staff, and complete familiarization with the customer’s demand, COFCO decided to carry out the maximum permissible technological renovation of the existing Wheat flour mill by increasing the productivity from 300 ton per day to 400 ton per day, increasing the extraction of flour, increasing the range of products, the transformation of the existing control system into an automatic system, which allows reducing labor costs and energy consumption.

Tajikistan Grain Imports

In the 2021/22 marketing year (November/October), total cereal import requirements were forecast at about 1.35 million tons, including 1.19 million tons of Wheat, 148,400 tons of corn, and small quantities of rice and Barley. The Grain import requirements in 2020/21 were forecast at about 1,225,000 tons, comprising 974,000 tons of Wheat, 21,600 tons of corn, 20,000 tons of rice, and 14,000 tons of Barley.

In 2020, Tajikistan imported Wheat worth $244 million, becoming the 49th largest importer of Wheat in the world. During the period, Wheat was the 1st most imported product in Tajikistan. Tajikistan imports Wheat primarily from: Kazakhstan ($235 million), Uzbekistan ($6.95 million), and Russia ($1.59 million).  

The same year, Tajikistan imported Barley worth $4.79 million, becoming the world’s 57th largest importer of Barley. During the period, Barley was the 163rd most imported product in Tajikistan. Tajikistan imports Barley primarily from: Kazakhstan ($4.79 million) and Russia ($3.18k).

Other sources: FAO

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