Mongolia to Export Wheat to China


Jan 30, 2023 | Agricultural Markets News

Reading time: 2 minutes

Wheat is the one of the main producing crops in Mongolia. The essential Wheat-producing province is Selenge, located in the north, followed by Bulgan and Tuv.  According to the preliminary results of the 2022 harvest, Mongolia produced 417 thousand tons of grain from 376.3 thousand ha. Of which 393.6 thousand tons were Wheat from 350 thousand ha. Last year, 160,000 tons of Wheat were supplied in domestic flour mills, the Agricultural Support Fund purchased 24,800 tons as a strategic food Wheat reserve, and a total of 184,800 tons of food Wheat were supplied to the market. The USDA forecasted Mongolia’s Wheat production at 570,000 tons in MY 2022/2023.

To support Wheat production, the Cabinet defined the incentive amount to individuals and companies producing Wheat that meet standard requirements to local flour mills and the Agricultural Support Fund to be MNT80 thousand per ton in early 2022. There are more than 50 flour manufacturers operating in our country, with the capacity to mill 943 thousand tons of Wheat per year. Mongolia’s local Wheat consumption is around 290,000 tons – 320,000 tons.

Until the middle of the 1990s, Mongolia was self-sufficient in Wheat and an occasional exporter. At the peak of agricultural production in 1989, approximately 1.38 million hectares of land were classified as arable or planted in permanent crops, and about 700,000 ha (50%) of this was actively harvested. In 2020, Mongolia imported Wheat worth $45 million, becoming the 98th largest importer of Wheat in the world. In the same year, Wheat was the 21st most imported product in Mongolia. Mongolia imports Wheat primarily from Russia,

Before 1990, Mongolia was exporting Wheat to North Korea. The issue of exporting flour to China has been discussed for a long time. In 2020, as part of the Minister of Foreign Affairs meeting of the People’s Republic of China, the representatives of China came and signed the “Protocol on the Quarantine of Wheat and Rye Flour. Subsequently, 13 domestic companies obtained a license to export Wheat to China. 

Mongolian Wheat Seed Varieties


Spring Wheat is the main crop of Mongolia and is sown in more than 90% of agricultural planting areas. The total Wheat production of Mongolia is increasing gradually, but out of solid and valuable Wheat for bread and flour production. The main case of providing sustainable Wheat production is to develop and widely cultivate vital and valuable Wheat varieties resistant to abiotic stresses, with high yield and good quality. Spring Wheat varieties by HMW-GS loci were similar, but Darkhan-166 /Arvin/variety was more than others.

Wheat varieties Darkhan-144, KP-547-12, Darkhan-131, Darkhan-144, and KP-561-12 have a high 1000-grain weight (41.5-44.8 g). Spring Wheat varieties KP-547-12, Darkhan-131, and KP-561-12 have a high dry gluten content (13.1-14.2%). Water absorption of spring Wheat varieties were 61-62%, and by these parameters, Darkhan-131, Darkhan-166, and KP-547-12 types were high. The dough development time of Wheat varieties were 8-13 minutes, and Darkhan-131, Darkhan-166, Darkhan-172, and KP-547-12 varieties have a high flour power. Wheat varieties Darkhan-131 and KP-547-12 have a high dough energy (828.8-857.2

Last year, the Agricultural Support Fund signed a Wheat seed supply agreement with six local enterprises. Those companies imported 10,000 tons of elite and breeding seeds from Russia such as Altayskaya-70, Altaнskaya-75, Altaiskaya-325, Novosibirskaya-31, Irene, Buryatskaya-79, Tobolskaya steppe, and Buryatskaya-551.

According to the appropriate procedure, the import of Wheat seed was received based on the conclusion of the State Inspector of Professional Inspection and the analysis and response of the internal control laboratory of the branches of the Agricultural Support Fund. 6,490 tons of imported seeds met the requirements of the 1st grade and 3,515 tons of the 2nd grade. Therefore, more than 390 farmers received those seed Wheat for cultivation.

Other sources: IKON

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