Romania Overtakes Kazakhstan in Iran’s Barley Market
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Barley, an essential grain crop, is dominantly applied in animal feed in Iran. This crop is the second-largest grain crop in harvested areas and production, after wheat, with about 1.7 million hectares and 3.26 million tons production throughout the country. Due to Barley’s ability to tolerate a wide range of conditions, it has been cultivated in various locations across Iran.
Resistance to the constraints and its use in the human nutrition cycle are considered crucial factors for the widespread Barley cultivation within the countries. The actual yield was reported in the range of 1406 and 3723 kg/ha (with an average of 3009 kg/ha) for irrigated Barley and ranged around 390–1510 kg/ha in rainfed conditions (with an average of 1009 kg/ha) in Iran.
According to the FAO reports, it is estimated that Iran will produce 3 million tons in the 2022-2023 Barley production debate. Approximately 2.5 million tons of Barley grains were purchased from other countries to meet their demands. According to the USDA data, Iran’s Barley import volume was 3.2 million tons in MY2019/2020, whereas its domestic consumption was 6.4 million tons. The USDA predicted that the country is forecast to import some 6 million tons of wheat and 2.5 million tons of Barley this season.
Given the physical constraints on its production, along with its rising population and income, Iran relies heavily on imports to satisfy its demand for major grain crops. Iran has been recognized as the third-largest importer of Barley in the world for the last few years. According to AgFlow data, Iran imported 2.3 million tons of Barley in 2022. The top supplier was Russia with 1.2 million tons, followed by Romania (0.4 million tons), Kazakhstan (0.36 million tons), Germany (0.13 million tons), and France (0.1 million tons). The following suppliers were Ukraine, Argentina, and Australia. In the last month, their import volume was 46,640 tons.
In 2022, a 63,000t cargo of French Barley was shipped from the French port of La Pallice to Iran by trading firm Viterra. This was the first official French Barley export to Iran since July 2019, when 132,000t was shipped to the destination. Interest for Barley also lacked clear pricing indications but offers for Iran-bound shipments out of Romanian ports in mid-2022 were seen at $420/t.
Iran-Kazakhstan Barley Trade
In January-April 2022, Kazakhstan exported 193 thousand tons of Barley worth $50.6 million. Iran remains the leading buyer, which bought 102.3 thousand tons of products for $29.4 million in four months. In total, Iran accounted for 53% of Kazakhstan’s Barley exports. And in 2021, Barley exports to Iran amounted to 550.7 thousand tons in the amount of $120.4 million.
“The main volume of Barley export to Iran is carried out by sea through the Caspian Sea (Aktau port). Also, in the direction of Iran, Kazakh exporters use the railway route through the Bolashak station – through Turkmenistan (Sarakhs station). The remaining volumes of Barley exports are carried out by rail. To Uzbekistan – through the Saryagash station, to China – through the Dostyk station,” the Ministry of Agriculture clarified.
In 2020, Iran imported Barley worth $153 million, becoming the world’s 12th largest importer of Barley. The same year, Barley was the 29th most imported product in Iran. Iran imports Barley primarily from: Kazakhstan ($117 million), Germany ($31 million), Ukraine ($3.61 million), Denmark ($1.6 million), and Austria ($59.7k).
The same year, Iran exported $549k in Barley, making it the 50th largest exporter of Barley in the world. The same year, Barley was the 360th most shipped product in Iran. The leading destination of Barley exports from Iran is Kazakhstan ($520k) and Pakistan ($27.4k).
Other sources: SCIENCE DIRECT
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