Croatia – Top Corn Export Market of Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Corn planting usually starts in early April and lasts 2-3 weeks, depending on weather conditions. MY 2023/2024 Corn is projected to be planted on 202,000 HA, with an expected production of 900,000 MT (average yield of 4,5 MT/HA). According to Ministry of Agriculture officials, the 2023 Corn area will be similar to or less than last year’s crop because Corn is harvested in September/October and, therefore, at a significantly higher risk of summer drought. BiH has approximately 1.6 million hectares of land suitable for cultivation.
In a good year, Corn yields can reach 6-7 MT/HA on average in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but weather conditions can significantly affect it. BiH already had two consecutive arid summers (2021 and 2022), and less than 5 percent of the cultivated land was irrigated. Corn planting may also be affected by a drop in the price of mercantile Corn and reportedly reduced livestock funds. There has been a significant increase in the price of Corn seeds, which can be an additional 20-40 percent depending on the hybrid type.
The widespread 2022 drought resulted in a substantial reduction in the production of Corn seeds, resulting in a deficit of the best seeds. However, the overall number of seeds offered on the market should be sufficient. The Government subsidizes 15 percent of the retail price for domestic hybrid Corn seeds.
Unlike in spring 2022, when the price of mineral fertilizers (especially nitrogen) was rising, and stocks were low, the supply of fertilizers has stabilized. Prices this year are 10-35 percent lower, with a further downward trend expected (except for NPK, which is up by five percent). Turkey, Croatia, and Serbia supplied most of the imported fertilizer in 2022. BiH’s single producer of fertilizer, GIKIL, in Lukavac, closed in 2021 due to a lack of environmental permits. The BiH government lifted a 5 percent import duty for 100,000MT of fertilizer in CY 2022 and 370,00 MT in CY 2023.
In MY 2022/2023, Corn was harvested on 135,000 HA, and production totaled only 552,300 MT (average yield of 4.1 MT/ha). This was a 38 percent decrease in production compared to the previous year when production totaled 893,124 MT (average yield of 4.5 MT/ha). The main reasons were low fertilizer usage, unfavorable weather conditions (unusually hot temperatures in June and July 2022, and drought). BiH requires 1.1 MMT of Corn per year, used mainly for feed. Corn stocks are estimated at 150,000 MT.
Corn Trade in Bosnia and Herzegovina
In CY 2022, BiH imported 188,626 MT of Corn valued at $68.7 million. Serbia supplied 86 percent of the imported Corn. BiH exported 8,444 MT of Corn valued at $4.1 million. In 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina imported Corn worth $45.1 million, becoming the 79th largest importer of Corn in the world. The same year, Corn was the 71st most imported product in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina imports Corn primarily from: Serbia ($36.9 million), Croatia ($5 million), Hungary ($1.01 million), Austria ($634k), and Romania ($561k).
In 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina exported Corn worth $2.74 million, making it the world’s 73rd most significant exporter of Corn. In the same year, Corn was the 264th most shipped product in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The leading destination of Corn exports from Bosnia and Herzegovina are Croatia ($2.08 million), Serbia ($448k), Turkey ($102k), Spain ($77.4k), and Italy ($19.9k).
The fastest-growing export markets for Corn in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 2020 and 2021 were Croatia ($1.27 million), Spain ($77.4k), and Slovenia ($14.2k).
Other sources: USDA
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