Asian Nations Become Top Importers of US Wheat


Sep 23, 2022 | Agricultural Markets News

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Wheat is produced in almost every state in the United States, and is the main cereal grain grown in the country. The type and quantity vary between regions. In the North American plains, the Wheat production axis that extends over a length of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) in a north–south direction from central Alberta to central Texas is known as the Wheat Belt. Wheat in the US is grown under two major categories based on climate: winter Wheat, and spring Wheat.
Hard red winter Wheat is grown in the southern U.S. states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, and Colorado. In the hot climatic conditions of these states, winter Wheat is raised by planting in fall and harvesting in the spring, taking advantage of autumn rains. Under harsh cold weather conditions in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota where winter Wheat cannot be grown, the crop is planted in the spring and grows during the long summer days of the high latitudes so that it can be harvested in the fall.
Various American-style Wheat beers are produced in the US. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines 8 official classes of Wheat: durum Wheat, hard red spring Wheat, hard red winter Wheat, soft red winter Wheat, hard white Wheat, soft white Wheat, unclassed Wheat, and mixed Wheat. Winter Wheat accounts for 70 to 80 percent of total production in the US, with the largest amounts produced in Kansas (10.8 million tons) and North Dakota (9.8 million tons). The US hard red spring Wheat crop is exported to over 70 countries each year to the extent of 55%.
Acreage brought under Wheat has, over the last several decades, varied with the Wheat price. During the first decade of the 2000s, Wheat ranked third among US field crops in both planted acreage and gross farm income; corn and soybeans held the first two positions. The acreage went down by nearly 30% (to 48,653,000 acres in 2001, as against 60-63 million acres harvested annually in the previous years; 30 of this area is in Texas.


Wheat Export Markets by tons ( 2021 - 2022)

The US Wheat Export

Of Wheat grown in the United States, 36% percent is consumed domestically by humans, 50% is exported, 10% is used for livestock feed, and 4% is used for seedlings. The US is ranked fourth in production volume of Wheat, with almost 50 million tons produced in 2020, behind only China, India and Russia. The US is ranked first in crop export volume, having sales value of US$9 billion.
The US Wheat’s share of the world market declined due to competition from the EU, Argentina, Australia, Canada, and also recently from Ukraine and Russia. The exported Wheat varieties are hard red winter, white Wheat (about 66%), Hard Red Spring (about 50%), Soft Red Winter, and durum Wheat. However, the producers continue to increase exports as in the domestic market Wheat products have not been competitive in recent years.
US Wheat exports for June and July 2022 reached a total of 117 million bushels, down 23 percent from the same period last year. Official US Wheat trade statistics for June and July are calculated based on data from the US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. However, data from the USDA, Federal Grain Inspections Service (FGIS) indicate much stronger Wheat exports for August.
The US exports Wheat to various countries. As per AgFlow data, Mexico was the largest export market of US Wheat with 4.1 million tons in 2021-2022 (Jul to Jun), followed by the Philippines (2.9 million tons), Japan (2.2 million tons), Nigeria (1.5 million tons), and South Korea (1.3 million tons). Wheat exports for 2022/2023 is forecast at 825 million bushels and there are no by-class changes.
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