Polish Wheat: 55% Of the Samples Qualify Good Baking
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According to Statistics Poland (GUS), the main crop production in the year 2021 was the level of 34.5 million tons, including Wheat (12.2 million tons), triticale (5.5 million tons), and barley (3.0 million tons). The 2016-2020 seasons Wheat harvest average was 11.2 million tons.
Winter Wheat harvest was at the second-record level of 11.3 million tons (the previous record was in the 2020 harvest year – 12.0 million tons). The average yield was 5.2 t/ha (0.2 t/ha lower than 2020). Spring Wheat harvest was 0.9 million tons, which is 0.3 million tons higher than in the 2020 harvest year, but 0.5 million tons lower than the last five years’ average. The average yield was 4.0 t/ha (0.2 t/ha lower than 2020). Compared to the average for the 2006-2010 harvest years (3.0 t/ha), there is clear progress in breeding.
In MY 2019/20, Polish Wheat exports reached 4.2 million tons, more than double the level of exports from the previous year. As per AgFlow data, Spain was the largest export market of Polish Wheat with 0.17 million tons in Jan-Oct, 2022, followed by Nigeria (0.14 million tons), Israel (0.11 million tons), and Kenya (0.1 million tons).
Polish Wheat Quality
Department of Grain Processing and Bakery of the Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology – State Research Institute (IBPRS-PIB) tested 581 Wheat grain samples from the 2021 harvest. Grain samples were delivered from Agricultural Advisory Centers, grain elevators, and milling companies from various climatic and cultivation regions, adopted by the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU).
Tested Wheat grain samples were characterized by medium and good technological quality – the average protein content is 13.2 % DM; gluten content 24.4%; Zeleny sedimentation index 41 cm3; lower specific weight 74.0 kg/hl; falling number 285 s, alveograph baking value “W” 263×10-4J.
Specific weight was in the range of 56.5 to 86.6 kg/hl. The average (74.0 kg/hl) was significantly lower than in the previous 2020 harvest year (average of 77.2kg/hl). Only 32% of tested Wheat samples were characterized by good milling quality (specific weight above 76 kg/hl). Unsatisfactory level of this parameter – below 72 kg/hl was characterized by 27% of tested samples. 61% of Wheat samples met the minimum requirements set for Wheat in the EU regulation for public intervention (specific weight above 73 kg/hl).
Protein content was in the range of 8.6 to 17.5% (average 13.2%), which is lower than the average value in the 2012 and 2016 harvest years (13.6%) but still higher than in the 2014 harvest year (12.1%). 83% of tested Wheat samples were characterized by good baking quality (protein content above 11.5%), and 35% of tested samples – very good baking quality (protein content above 14%). An unsatisfactory level of this parameter – below 9.5% was characterized by only 1% of tested samples. 86% of Wheat samples met the minimum requirements set for Wheat in the EU regulation for public intervention (protein content above 11.0%).
Wet gluten content was in the range of below 13 to 35.5%. Only 55% of tested Wheat samples were characterized by good baking quality (wet gluten content above 25%) and 16% by very good baking quality (wet gluten content above 30%). An unsatisfactory level of this parameter – below 20% was characterized by 12% of tested samples.
The baking strength was in the range of 64 to 377×10-4J. Only 26% of tested Wheat samples were characterized by baking strength above 300×10-4J, which indicates the potential use of grain for the production of flour for baking purposes, e.g., hamburger buns, pizza, frozen dough (“W” in the range 300-400×10-4J), or as an improver for flour obtained from weaker Wheat („W” above 400×10-4J).
Other sources: https://www.ibprs.pl/
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