Durum Wheat: India Hugs Ethiopia
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Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum L.) is an economically important crop grown worldwide, including India. It is cultivated in 10 to 11% of the world’s area, accounting for about 8% of the total Wheat production. The advantage of Durum Wheat cultivation is more production with less irrigation. Durum (Malvi) Wheat needs less irrigation as compared to bread Wheat. Some varieties, like Malav Ratan and Malav Karti can give 35-40 quintals/ha in one or two irrigations, depending upon water availability. In three to four irrigations, varieties like Malav Shakti and Poshan give around 50-60 quintals/ha.
It is found that as compared to rice and aestivum (variety of Wheat) nutrient value of Durum Wheat is more because it contains protein and micronutrients like iron, copper, and zinc in large amounts comparatively. Also, it is clear that, as compared to the most popular bread Wheat (Lok-1) in central India, Durum Wheat (Malav Karti) contains more values of total carotene (two and a half % more), protein, and micronutrients. In addition, it has vitamin B complex, i.e., Riboflavin, Lysine, and Thiamine, in reasonable amounts. Folic acid, calcium, vitamin E, and antioxidants are contained in good amounts compared to bread Wheat. Total carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, helps keep the eyes healthy and is helpful in the development of the immune system.
Research showed that Durum Wheat has different levels of rust resistance as compared to common bread Wheat. Many Durum Wheat varieties are resistant to brown rust, which is very prominent in bread Wheat in India. Durum Wheat can protect Wheat cultivators in central India and all over India where Wheat is cultivated. It is also resistant to black rust (Ug 99), avoiding the dispersion of Ug 99 race in India. Durum Wheat is also resistant to seed-borne diseases like Karnal blunt and Kayama (Loose Smut), which gives seed-born disease-free Wheat varieties.
There are many Durum Wheat varieties developed for different irrigation conditions. India Agriculture Research Institute, Regional Station, is working very effectively to create wide Durum Wheat varieties for other irrigation conditions and improve their quality level. All the developed varieties are rust-resistant, have high water use efficiency, are drought and heat tolerable, and contain high-quality nutrients. Therefore, the cultivation of Durum Wheat makes excellent economic sense today as compared to other crops.
Durum Wheat is mainly used in fast food like noodles, spaghetti, lasagna, vermicelli, macaroni, pasta, and many other products. Considering the increasing demand for these products, many fast-food production plants can be set up, providing jobs to many people. And its traditional food products like Bati, Bafla, Dalia, Churma, Lapsi, Upma, etc., are being consumed as a staple food. There is vast competition in the export of bread Wheat compared to Durum Wheat. Since Durum Wheat is a more profitable crop than bread Wheat, farmers can make good money by supplying disease-free, nutrient-filled Durum Wheat. In addition, they can get an excellent market for processed food manufacturers in India.
Indian Durum Wheat Exports
In 2021, India exported Durum Wheat worth $13.5 million, making it the world’s 32nd most significant exporter of Durum Wheat. In the same year, Durum Wheat was India’s 1831st most exported product. The leading destination of Durum Wheat exports from India is Ethiopia ($7.14 million), Nepal ($3.26 million), the Philippines ($1.42 million), Malaysia ($631k), and Jordan ($480k). The fastest-growing export markets for Durum Wheat of India between 2020 and 2021 were Ethiopia ($4.94 million), the Philippines ($1.06 million), and Jordan ($314k).
Shri Mahavir Group supplies Durum Wheat all over the world with its wide distribution network and caters to the needs of the buyers in their specifications. Their best-known Hindi varieties are Malav Raj, Malav Shakti, and Poshak.
Other sources: THINKSCIENCE
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